CBMPW was applied to Cono-coPhillips 242A and 207A on April 28 and May 10 and 18, 2004, and May 12, 19, and 25, 2005, at 2.8, 2.8, 2,8, 2.8, 1.4, and 1.4 in. per application, respectively, for a total amount of 8.4 and 5.2 in. in 2004 and 2005, respectively (Table 4).
Table 2. Names of Cultivars or Varieties Planted at Each Site, 2003 to 2005 .. Seeding rate Variety or cultivar (lb pls/ac)
Arriba Western wheatgrass 8.0
Chief Intermediate wheatgrass 10.0
Luna Pubescent wheatgrass 10.0
Hycrest Crested wheatgrass 5.0
VNS [Variety not specified]a Canada wild ryegrass 7.0
Bozoisky Russian wild ryegrass 5.0
Critana Thickspike wheatgrass 6.0
VNSa bottlebrush squirreltail 8.0
Redondo Arizona fescue 3.0
Paloma Indian ricegrass 6.0
Anatone Bluebunch wheatgrass 9.0
VNSa Junegrass 4.0
Covar sheep fescue 2.0
San Luis Slender wheatgrass 6.0
VNSa needle and threadgrass 8.0
From August to December 2003, 2.8 in. of precipitation were measured at the site; in 2004, 2005, and 2006, 10.9, 16.8, and 13.4 in. of precip-itation were measured, ? average annual 13.7 in
Soil tests: Soil tests taken before and after CBMPW application averaged a pH of 7.3 and 7.6, EC of 2.6 and 3.3 deciSiemens per meter (dS/m), Ca content of 445 and 235 ppm, Mg content of 54 and 52 ppm, Na content of 405 and 477 ppm, and SAR of 5 and 7.1, respectively.
Electrical conductivity describes the amount of electrical current conducted by a saturated soil extract at a fixed temperature. The more salts in solution, the greater the EC reading and the great-er the toxicity to plants. This test does not dis-tinguish between salt types
Usually, soils with an EC of 15 dS/m or above are unsuitable for most crops, and a severe decrease in forage production occurs. For example, crested wheatgrass, western wheatgrass, slender wheatgrass, Canadian and Russian wild ryegrass, and intermediate wheatgrass are moder-ately tolerant to tolerant at EC levels ranging from 10 to 15 dS/m
All 3 sites showed levels below 6 dS/m after CBMPW was applied, [but increased overall...? see Table 3]
[Increases in SAR, EC, and pH across the board after using CBMPW]
Table 3. Soil Sample Results Before and After Coal Bed Methane Produced Water (CBMPW) [pdf 4][these are soil samples, water in Table 5]
Table 5. Coal Bed Methane Produced Water (CBMPW) Analysis [pdf 4][shows increased TDS, pH, and EC][this Is the input water?]
SAR describes the ratio of sodium relative to calcium and magnesium
SAR value of 15 or greater indicates an excess of sodium will be absorbed by the soil clay particles, inhibiting germination and growth of desired plants [sodium absorption rate]
Usually, if the irrigation water EC value is more than 3 dS/m (except for tolerant crops, usu-ally 8 to 12 dS/m) and SAR value is more than 26 (values less than 10 are acceptable for production), that water is unsuitable for production.
The higher the EC, the less water available to plants, even though a field may appear wet. Water sources with an EC value of 1.0 dS/m contain approximately 2,000 lb of salt for every acre foot of water applied (Bauder et al., 2007).
With this in mind, approximately 6.3, 4.7, and 2.9 tons of salt were applied to WP Rosa 159A and ConocoPhillips 242A and 207A, respectively.
[the report suggests processed water may be useful for establishing vegetation, but all the data suggests an increase in undesirable traits such as SAR, EC, TDS, and more.]